Moscow’s new Borei II submarines will be capable of launching intercontinental ballistic missiles armed with hypersonic weapons.
Each submarine could launch up to 200 hypersonic weapons, posing a major threat to the West if a world war was to break out.
A hypersonic weapon can travel about one mile per second, making them at least five times faster than the speed of sound.
Borei II is the first class of submarines developed by Russia since the height of the Cold War, according to CNBC.
Russian president Vladimir Putin is thought to have slashed funding for other military projects to fund the ambitious programme.
Earlier this year Mr Putin taunted Nato by hailing his nation’s hypersonic arsenal as “invincible”.
At a major speech in Moscow, he said the development of the weapons would render Nato’s defences “completely useless”.
Playing down fears of an imminent conflict between Russia and the US, Mr Putin said: “We have no plans to be an aggressor.
“We are not going to take anything away from anybody. Russia’s strong military is a guarantor of peace on our planet.
“But any use of nuclear weapons against Russia or its allies, any kind of attack, will be regarded as a nuclear attack against Russia.
“In response, we will take action instantaneously, no matter what the consequences are.
“Nobody should have any doubt about that.”
The United States does not currently have the capability to defend itself against hypersonic weapons.
In March, the US military’s top nuclear commander warned that Russia was “aggressively pursuing hypersonic capabilities”.
US Air Force General John E Hyten added: “We don’t have any defence that could deny the employment of such a weapon against us.
“Our response would be our deterrent force, which would be the Triad and the nuclear capabilities that we have to respond to such a threat.”